ngo non profit organization Historically, the concept of income has first appeared in economics. Adam Smith, in the wealth of nations, defined income as "the amount of consumption that is not eroded by capital", and saw it as an increase in wealth. Later, most economists inherited and developed this view. 1890, ai (Alfred Marshall Maarshell) in its "the principles of economics," the Adam Smith's "wealth increase" enterprise, introduced the concept of earnings, is proposed to distinguish the entity capital and value-added benefits of economic benefits. Cylinder work volume refers to the volume of gas swept by the piston from the top to the bottom, also known as single cylinder displacement, depending on the cylinder diameter and the piston stroke. Engine displacement is the total volume of working volume of each cylinder, usually expressed in milliliter (CC). Engine displacement is one of the most important structural parameters. It is more representative of engine size than cylinder diameter and cylinder number, and many indicators of engine are closely related to displacement. Quality control indicators include: gasoline antiknock property (research octane number, motor octane number, antiknock index), sulfur content, vapor pressure, contents of olefins, aromatics, benzene content, corrosion, distillation range, etc. In January 2014, the national general motors (gm) IV standard was used. The state administration of quality supervision and inspection and the national standards commission issued the mandatory national standards for motor vehicles in phase V. The plan is to be implemented at the end of 2016. The sulfur content is the most critical environmental protection indicator in vehicle gasoline. In order to further reduce the emission of vehicle pollutants, the national V standard lowers the sulfur content limit from 50ppm in the fourth stage to 10ppm, which is 80% lower. Manganese has the potential risk to human health, and the vehicle emission control system will also have adverse effects. According to the principle of prevention, the limit value of the manganese content indicator is reduced from 8mg/L in the fourth stage to 2mg/L, which stipulates that no artificial addition is allowed. In order to further reduce the photochemical pollution caused by the evaporation of gasoline, and reduce the gas intake system of the automobile engine, the national five standard reduced the level of olefin from 28% to 24% in the fourth stage. Due to the decrease of octane number caused by the reduction of sulfur and manganese, the number of gasoline used in phase V was adjusted from 90, 93 and 97 to 89, 92 and 95 respectively. At the same time, considering the development trend of the automobile industry, the index requirements of motor gasoline are added in the standard appendices. Mr Trump also abandoned his trade base, where he made rhetoric rather than concrete action. Yes, he abandoned the trans-pacific partnership (TPP), but Hillary Clinton would do the same. He had thought about dropping the north American free trade law (Nafta), but that could be just a negotiating tactic. He threatened to impose a 50 per cent tariff on goods from China, Mexico and other us trading partners, but failed to do so. The proposal for border adjustment taxes was almost forgotten. Workers in the category for caring, leisure and other service occupations earn £218 more on average than equivalent full-time members of staff, while temporary managers and directors enjoy a £2,477 pay boost compared to full-timers.