advantages and disadvantages of non profit corporation Palmer said: "I'm worried about the British retailers are now in the midst of a perfect storm, interest rate decisions in November, rising inflation, real wages, falling credit availability and the UK to take off the European uncertainty increased, these during the Christmas season for caused an unprecedented pressure on household budgets, pushed consumer confidence to historic lows. "Historically, the concept of income has first appeared in economics. Adam Smith, in the wealth of nations, defined income as "the amount of consumption that is not eroded by capital", and saw it as an increase in wealth. Later, most economists inherited and developed this view. 1890, ai (Alfred Marshall Maarshell) in its "the principles of economics," the Adam Smith's "wealth increase" enterprise, introduced the concept of earnings, is proposed to distinguish the entity capital and value-added benefits of economic benefits. The international monetary fund cut its growth forecast for the UK to 1.6 per cent this year from 1.7 per cent in October and is expected to grow by 1.5 per cent in 2018. (2) enterprise liquidation or transfer of wholly owned subsidiaries and holding more than 95% of the business, should according to the state administration of taxation on printing < enterprise reorganization restructuring on certain questions in the business income tax provisional regulation > notice (guoshuifa (1998) no. 97) of the relevant provisions. Where the investor shall share the accumulated undistributed profit and accumulated surplus of the investor, the income from the dividend of the investor shall be recognized. In order to avoid double taxation on after-tax profits, it will affect the restructuring activities of the enterprise and, when the equity transfer proceeds of the investment party are calculated, the income from the dividend will be deducted from the transfer income. 7. Efficiency. The efficiency of the plan mainly refers to the time and economy. Agency workers are collectively underpaid by £400m a year compared to their full-time counterparts, with the pay gap costing temporary admin staff £990 a year on average, according to new research. If classical economists have interpreted the "market" as "laissez-faire", coase has answered the question of how to achieve "laissez-faire" or "price mechanism".