non profit industry trends Palmer said: "I'm worried about the British retailers are now in the midst of a perfect storm, interest rate decisions in November, rising inflation, real wages, falling credit availability and the UK to take off the European uncertainty increased, these during the Christmas season for caused an unprecedented pressure on household budgets, pushed consumer confidence to historic lows. "Historically, the concept of income has first appeared in economics. Adam Smith, in the wealth of nations, defined income as "the amount of consumption that is not eroded by capital", and saw it as an increase in wealth. Later, most economists inherited and developed this view. 1890, ai (Alfred Marshall Maarshell) in its "the principles of economics," the Adam Smith's "wealth increase" enterprise, introduced the concept of earnings, is proposed to distinguish the entity capital and value-added benefits of economic benefits. Originated in ancient human market trading place for a fixed period of time or place, after the urban growth and prosperity, live in the city of adjacent area farmers, craftsmen, artisans, will start to deal with each other and contribute to the economy of the city. Obvious, the best way to trade is in the city there is a centralized, as market, can let the people in the provision of goods and business services, convenient for people to find goods and business contacts. When a city's market becomes large and more open, the city's economic vitality is also relatively growing. Generally speaking, the interest rate varies according to the term of measurement, indicating that the method has annual interest rate, monthly interest rate and daily interest rate. The plan, which is applied to the organization as a whole, is called a strategic plan for the organization to set up overall goals and to seek the organization's place in the environment. The plan for the details of how the overall goal is implemented is called the job plan. The strategic plan and the job plan are different in terms of time frame, in terms of scope and whether they include a set of organizational goals that are known. Strategic planning tends to include persistent intervals of time, usually five years or more, covering a wide range of areas and does not specify specific details. Furthermore, an important task of the strategic plan is to set goals; The job plan assumes that the goal already exists, but only provides a way to achieve the goal. The same is true of unconventional interventions in corporate bonds and mortgage-backed securities. Not surprisingly, the concept of central bank independence obviously help to specific financial institutions - and this time, the whole society are under unprecedented economic pressures - soon become politically toxic. Before that, what is the nature of the enterprise itself is an issue that has been ignored by traditional microeconomic theory. In the traditional microeconomic theory, is the manufacturer's production process as a "black box", namely enterprise is abstracted into a from input to output a "black box" of the pursuit of profit maximization.