what is the formula for net profit margin 2. P45 forms are in four parts, part 1 is retained with the issuing employer and the employee retains part 1 A and may hand parts 2 and 3 for the new employer. The new employer cannot make use of the P45 tax details unless both parts are given over. If either part 2 or 3 with the P45 form is missing then this employee must be asked to complete the Inland Revenue P46 form. From the end of the 19th century to the early 20th century, car designers focused their energies on the development and innovation of mechanical engineering. First half of the 20th century, all about the basic structure of the car has been invented, automotive designers begin from the outside to improve on modelling, and successively introduced the aerodynamics, fluid mechanics, human body engineering and industrial modelling design (industrial aesthetics), etc If W on behalf of commodity value, k represents the cost, with p represents the profit, so, as the money into profit, the capitalist conditions of commodity value, namely, W = c + v + m = k + m, on further into W = k + p, i.e. goods value + profit into the cost price. Thus, surplus value is the intrinsic essence of profit, and profit is the phenomenon form of surplus value. Surplus value into profit, the profit and then into average profit, etc., hierarchy, the more the more escalated from abstract to concrete, it is close to the reality of capitalist society and the consciousness of the capital relationship between the parties; As a result, capital relations are becoming more and more mysterious as they leave their own source or base and get further and further away. Bourgeois economists for capitalism exploitation system, trying to deny the existence of the surplus value, no conflict between capital and employment, the product of the profit as capital itself, as the result of both production and circulation process. The so-called trinity formula of profit (interest), labor wage and land rent is the most explicit and typical defense argument of bourgeois vulgar economy. Marx's theory of profit is the transformation form of surplus value, profoundly reveals the essence and source of the profit, and profit further transformation of various concrete form again and they reflect the complexity of the capitalist production relations and class performance, thus for the proletariat and working people struggle against the bourgeoisie, and fight for the liberation of revolution provides the theory of sharp weapons. Analysts are vehemently arguing that a sharp rise in the yield curve is a sign of a major shift in sentiment, or a temporary jolt from a position adjustment. First of all, it costs transaction cost for the manufacturer to purchase intermediate products in the market. It includes the cost of seeking suitable suppliers, signing contracts and supervising contract execution. If the manufacturer can produce some intermediate products within the enterprise itself, it can eliminate or reduce some transaction costs, and can better guarantee the quality of the products. Second, if the manufacturers need is a special type of specialized equipment, the supplier does not generally willing to specialize in only a buyer of the product of the investment and production, because this kind of proprietary investment risk is bigger. Therefore, vendors that need this specialized device need to solve the problem of specialized devices within the enterprise. In the end, the manufacturers hire employees with specialized skills, such as specialized product design, cost management, and quality control, and establish long-term contractual relationships with them. This can be more beneficial than buying the corresponding services from other vendors, thereby eliminating or reducing the corresponding transaction costs. High compression ratio if choose low grades of gasoline engine, can make the cylinder temperature rises, the incomplete combustion of gasoline, strong vibration machine, so that the output power down, damage to the parts, fuel consumption and driving. If lower compression ratio engine with high grade oil, can appear "delay" phenomenon, namely the compression ratio is less than the highest point of spontaneous combustion, as will appear incomplete combustion phenomenon, the engine is no good. Because China's mainstream economics mechanical property right understanding into property of power based on stock, so, in the name of the Chinese norm of the reform of property right will be the eye looks at on the stock of state-owned assets, simple and ridiculous "privatisation" scheme, clear property rights is approximate to "privatization". It was a misreading of coase, a misreading of alchin and even an insult to them. The precise description of property rights should be the right to clarify individual pursuit of wealth.