profitable small businesses ideas The difference between the income and the total income has been realized In his theory, money supply is controlled by the central bank and is an exogenous variable with no interest rate elasticity. At this point, monetary demand depends on people's psychological "liquidity preference". UK faces longest fall in living standards since records began, says thinktank In theoretical economics, investment means buying (and therefore producing) capital goods - not being consumed but being used in future production. Examples include building railroads, or factories, cleaning the land, or allowing yourself to go to college. Strictly speaking, investment in formula GDP= C + I + G + NX is also part of gross domestic product. In that respect, the function of investment is divided into non-residential investments (such as factories, machinery, etc.) and residential investment (new homes). The correlation between I = (Y, I) is known to have a close relationship with income and interest rates. Higher incomes would boost higher investment, but higher interest rates would discourage investment because it would be more expensive to borrow. Even if companies choose to use their own funds to invest, interest rates represent the opportunity cost of investing in those funds rather than the interest that will lend out. Not long ago, U.S. debt long positions were near historic highs. The CFTC's holdings report showed that as of Dec. 12, the 30-year U.S. debt had a net gain of 10.091 million, the highest level since last July.