gross profit v net profit On November 11, 1997, the bank of England took a big step towards independence, politely revising the "banking law" of 1946 and reading it in the lower house. The bill passed legislation affirming that Gordon Brown, the Treasury secretary, freed government control from the central banking business. This is the hallmark of an institution that has been under the yoke of government for a century and a half. It symbolises how demand for central bank independence becomes conventional wisdom. These managerial accounting questions correspond with effective cost assignment and optimal cash strategy tips for a small business enterprise-the appropriate combination of costs management strategies that maximizes the return and shareholders' wealth while minimizing the cost of operations, simultaneously. Julie Palmer, a retail expert at Begbies Traynor, said retailers faced a particularly disappointing deal in the weeks following the apparent success of "black Friday" at the end of November. Under the conditions of open economy, the scale of international capital flows is huge, which greatly exceeds international trade volume, indicating the great development of financial globalization. The impact of interest-rate differentials on exchange rate movements is more important than in the past. When a country tightening credit, interest rates will rise, character formed in the international market interest rate difference, will cause the short-term funds internationally mobile, capital generally always is flowing from countries with low interest rates to countries with high interest rates.