hooey oil gear Adam Smith began as a logical starting point for "the personal gratification of the activity of personal gratification," and the market was "laissez-faire". The activities of the government completely unable to intervene in the pursuit of personal wealth, also don't have to worry about the laissez-faire altogether will create chaos, "an invisible hand" will be taking the laissez-faire personal economic activities arranged in perfect order. In other words, Adam Smith's market concept focuses on limiting government interference in individual economic activities. The wealth of nations also spends a considerable amount of time attacking the mercantilist policies that interfere with individual economic activity and limit individual economic power (property rights). Later classical economists stuck to their laissez-faire views. The report said: “These pay penalties exist despite the Agency Worker Regulations 2010 which gives those with 12 weeks-plus of continuous service in the workplace pay parity with comparable employees.” The form of shares is the share certificate. Different types of joint-stock enterprises, the specific form of their share certificates are different. Among them, only the limited company is used to express the company shares the form is the stock. Stock shall be recorded according to the amount of capital represented by the shares and shall be recorded by shareholders' share of capital contribution and shareholder rights for the public subscription and transfer of transactions. Holding a stock means owning a stake in a limited company, acquiring a shareholder's qualification, and exercising shareholder rights. The research analysed five years’ trading connection between 1000 UK individuals split evenly into three age-based groups: 18-30, 30-50 and 50+, while using highest age being over 80. The five years ended in October 09 and so covered bull and bear markets, the banking collapse of 2008 and the volatile 2008/9 markets. Economic profits in perfect competition and monopolistic competition market has a special purpose, a positive profit can attract more enterprises to enter the market, increasing competition and push the market equilibrium price low, exclude some enterprises lack of competitiveness in the market, to achieve long-term equilibrium; On the contrary, negative economic profit can eliminate some of the original enterprises in the market, because the supply is reduced, the market equilibrium price will be pushed up, and the long-term equilibrium will be achieved. The result of the two cases is that economic profits disappear from each manufacturer and the manufacturer's total income is at the lowest point of average cost.