profit skimming Think of high yield p2p wealth management products, as investors you should know this: Last month, the bank said it expects to raise interest rates twice to keep inflation below 3 percentage points by the end of the decade. Historically, the concept of income has first appeared in economics. Adam Smith, in the wealth of nations, defined income as "the amount of consumption that is not eroded by capital", and saw it as an increase in wealth. Later, most economists inherited and developed this view. 1890, ai (Alfred Marshall Maarshell) in its "the principles of economics," the Adam Smith's "wealth increase" enterprise, introduced the concept of earnings, is proposed to distinguish the entity capital and value-added benefits of economic benefits. Although an enterprise's internal trade fair eliminates or reduces some of the market transaction costs, it also brings with it the specific transaction costs of the enterprise. The main reason for this defect is also the incompleteness of information. Specifically, first, there are various contractual relationships among enterprises, including contractual relationship between enterprises and workers, contractual relationship between enterprises and managers, etc. The enterprise should supervise the work of the workers and products that it employs, as well as the managers and other personnel, and induces them to work hard for the enterprise. So, companies are signing contracts and spending on oversight and incentives. Secondly, on the one hand, corporate decision makers often need to obtain information from subordinates. On the other hand, the decision-making information of the upper level of the enterprise should be realized by passing it to the subordinate. The information transmission of these two different directions will be distorted by the increase of subordination of enterprise scale, resulting in the loss of enterprise efficiency. Once again, the subordinate of the enterprise often conceals or passes the wrong information to the superior for selfish motives, so that the superior can make decisions that benefit the subordinate. Or, the subordinate's decision to the superior only passes or executes the part that is advantageous to oneself. These will result in the loss of enterprise efficiency. Thus, the expansion of enterprises is limited. According to coase's theory, the scale of the enterprise should be expanded to this point, that is at this point to increase the cost of an internal exchange cost equals the cost through the market exchange cost and so on. Planning is not only the premise and criterion of organization, command and coordination, but also closely related to the management and control activities. The plan sets the data, scales and standards for various complex management activities, which not only provide direction for control, but also provide a basis for controlling activities. Experience tells us that unplanned activities are uncontrollable and uncontrollable. Because the control itself is to correct the deviation of the deviation plan, to keep the management activities consistent with the objectives. The international monetary fund cut its growth forecast for the UK to 1.6 per cent this year from 1.7 per cent in October and is expected to grow by 1.5 per cent in 2018.