how to analyse profitability ratios It is not obvious in some analyses, but it is important to note that economic profits include opportunity costs. The profit of an entrepreneur (normal profit) is usually positive, but economic profit can be either positive or negative (loss). That's why the opportunity cost is included: in a completely competitive market, when marginal cost equals marginal revenue, profit maximization or loss minimization conditions arise. If the market price is lower than the total average cost, which means that the economic profit is negative, the entrepreneur needs to compare the value of the loss and the average variable cost. If the business continues to operate, the negative economic profit must not be lower than the average variable cost, otherwise the entrepreneur would rather shut down the company than continue to take the loss. 1. Industrial age Commenting on the recent renovations, Ms Stephens said: “I am absolutely delighted with the work that has been carried out and Dortech’s customer service and professional installation has been second to none. The government also told the bank of England that it could increase its $25bn in regular funding schemes, which means that this is unlikely to change. If these measures do not satisfy his base, Mr Trump still has the last option, which the Roman emperor and other dictators have long used in difficult times at home. That is to say, he can "swing the dog" by making external threats or launching foreign military adventures, thereby dispersing his supporters from what he and republican lawmakers have done. Surplus value is created by employing workers in the process of direct production, but it must be transferred to the currency before it can be realized. Whether or not the goods can be sold and sold at what price, profits can be achieved and how much they can be achieved will depend on the specific conditions of supply and demand and market competition. In particular, capital goods of retrieval from the industry capital movement become the commercial capital, specific implementation of commodity value and surplus value function, and accordingly obtain business profits, make the relationship more complicated and more likely to cause mystification. In the process of circulation, some factors restricting the production process, or with, or to the conflict between capital and labor, into between capital and capital, pure relationship between buyers and sellers, and so on, all this will cover the production process with the difference between the circulation process, it is easier to put the cost price as the intrinsic value of the real goods, consider profit higher than the result of the sale of commodity value, the surplus value and commodity value contained in the implementation, in the process of circulation has been reversed expression is created from the sale. Because, the original business profits are exploited by industrial capital in the process of production to the part of the surplus value of transformation of form, but is considered in the process of circulation through the buy low sell high, produce, or paid by consumers upon. And class relations are distorted, business profits are reflect the commercial capitalist through industrial capitalists to hire laborers, the relationship between exploitation and exploitation were buried, and distortion of between capitalist and capitalist and capitalist with pure commodity trading relationship between the consumers.