difference between markup and profit margin Hybrid cars, which add an internal combustion engine to pure electric vehicles, aim to reduce the pollution of cars and improve the mileage of pure electric vehicles. Hybrid vehicles have serial and parallel structure. On Wednesday, on the first four shopping days of Christmas, upscale stores were discounting heavily, including most of the fashion retailers. H&M offers discounts of up to 60%, while Debenhams, Fraser, French connections, gaps, new faces and Dorothy Perkins offer discounts of up to 50%. Interest rates have a very important impact on the exchange rate, which is the most important factor affecting the exchange rate. We know that the exchange rate is the relative price between the two countries' currencies. Like other commodity pricing mechanisms, it is determined by the supply and demand relationship in the foreign exchange market. Foreign exchange is a kind of financial asset, which people hold because it can bring the benefits of capital. In 1946, the famous British economist J.R. hicks, in value and capital, developed the concept of income into a general concept of economic gain. He argues that the real purpose of computing revenues is to make people aware of the amount of money they can spend without making them poorer. Accordingly, he gave a generally accepted definition of "the maximum amount of consumption that a person can spend at the end of the term, at the same level of prosperity". Hicks's definition, though primarily for personal gain, applies to businesses as well. In the case of the enterprise, according to this definition, the enterprise income can be understood as the maximum amount that can be allocated in the enterprise cost accounting period under the same amount of capital at the end of the term and the beginning of the period. The "property right of the new system" is the premise.