profitability measures Accounting earnings include only realized gains, and exclude unrealized gains and losses, the economic benefits will be enterprise's operating earnings and are favorable to the same treatment, regardless of whether they have been implemented. Thus, in general, accounting gains are less than economic gains, and the difference is mainly in the interest. First of all, it costs transaction cost for the manufacturer to purchase intermediate products in the market. It includes the cost of seeking suitable suppliers, signing contracts and supervising contract execution. If the manufacturer can produce some intermediate products within the enterprise itself, it can eliminate or reduce some transaction costs, and can better guarantee the quality of the products. Second, if the manufacturers need is a special type of specialized equipment, the supplier does not generally willing to specialize in only a buyer of the product of the investment and production, because this kind of proprietary investment risk is bigger. Therefore, vendors that need this specialized device need to solve the problem of specialized devices within the enterprise. In the end, the manufacturers hire employees with specialized skills, such as specialized product design, cost management, and quality control, and establish long-term contractual relationships with them. This can be more beneficial than buying the corresponding services from other vendors, thereby eliminating or reducing the corresponding transaction costs. The European central bank's interest rate and previous decision to taper its bond purchases have been stable: capfafenbach This week, interest rate debt in developed countries in Europe and the United States suffered a massive sell-off. Affected by this, the yield curve of government bonds has been changed to a steep and steep trend. Gasoline is produced and sold according to the brand name, and the specifications of the brand are regulated by national gasoline product standards and are related to different standards. At present, there are 3 gasoline license plates in China (IV), which are 90, 93 and 97 respectively. The state (V) is 89, 92 and 95 respectively (98 in the appendix). The number of gasoline is divided by octane number. For example, gasoline on 97 refers to a gasoline fuel equivalent to 97 percent of isooctane and 3 percent of n-heptane resistance. The larger the label, the better the anti-knock performance. Depending on the engine compression ratio, you should choose the different brand of gasoline, which will be indicated on the manual of each vehicle. A mid-range sedan with a compression ratio of 8.5-9.5 should generally use the 90 (country IV) gasoline, and the car with a compression ratio of 9.5 should use the gasoline of 93 (country IV). The high yield p2p wealth management products know the above mentioned above, and also know that the domestic p2p financing market is not sound enough, so there is a certain risk in the p2p financing investment. How to choose investment platform, how to determine the security of P2P wealth management products, its complexity is also greatly increased. So be cautious as investors.