abnormal profit in monopolistic competition 4. The determination of accounting earnings shall follow the principle of revenue confirmation. The current accounting practice and the law's view of earnings are still: only after the relevant conditions of the asset value increase are met, the benefits can be generated. Income and appreciation must be measured objectively, determined or unalterable, and must be verified through some business or accounting matters. In other words, the determination of accounting income should be based on the following two principles: the realization principle of income determination and the prudent principle of income determination. According to the realization principle of revenue recognition, the enterprise income should be divided into operating income and profit and loss. The determination of operating earnings must happen in selling goods or services and other key issues, and the profit and loss refers to the production of the assets held realized gains and losses, unrealized gains and losses caused by price change is not confirmed. According to the principle of steady earnings determine when a has a variety of economic business accounting methods for when the choice, should choose the most don't overestimate the method of income, it should not be overestimated revenues and should not be underestimated cost two aspects. By transferring ownership and control of data, the entire society's passive consumers will be active participants. With the tools to audit the supply chain, labor security, fair trading, and organic production will all be validated. We can replace advertising terms with proof and replace trust with auditability. 4. Universality. The actual planning involves each manager and employee in the organization, an organization's overall goal is determined, managers at all levels in order to achieve the organizational goals, make the level of organizational work smoothly, all need to make a plan. To exit a lost transaction, the most effective procedure is to issue a "stop loss order". Of course, the only way to do this is by the trader's idea of how much he's willing to lose. If he has set an acceptable level of loss before entering the trade, the only thing he can do is to issue a "stop loss order" once the market has reached that point.