problems on profit and loss The city of bentugon salvis, in the southwestern state of Rio grande do, has a reputation as the "capital of Brazilian wine" and has a history of almost 150 years. Nearly 85 per cent of Brazil's wine is produced in more than 700 vineyards, which have a total area of less than 400 square kilometres. The wine is fresh and balanced with cabernet sauvignon, merlot and chardonnay. In 1946, the famous British economist J.R. hicks, in value and capital, developed the concept of income into a general concept of economic gain. He argues that the real purpose of computing revenues is to make people aware of the amount of money they can spend without making them poorer. Accordingly, he gave a generally accepted definition of "the maximum amount of consumption that a person can spend at the end of the term, at the same level of prosperity". Hicks's definition, though primarily for personal gain, applies to businesses as well. In the case of the enterprise, according to this definition, the enterprise income can be understood as the maximum amount that can be allocated in the enterprise cost accounting period under the same amount of capital at the end of the term and the beginning of the period. In the face of market failure, coase has given the opposite answer: external-utility problems can be solved by explicitly using the market, without government intervention. And zhang wuchang is more absolute, he said that there is no so-called external utility, there is only unclear property rights. Anyway, coase brought revolutionary innovation to market concepts. He made it clear that the key to the market was not the "price mechanism" of impersonal machinery, but the power of participants in economic activity. 5. Accounting earnings depend on the reasonable proportion of income and expenses during the period. Costs that are not associated with the current period should be incurred as assets to be transferred for later periods. Hybrid cars, which add an internal combustion engine to pure electric vehicles, aim to reduce the pollution of cars and improve the mileage of pure electric vehicles. Hybrid vehicles have serial and parallel structure.