profit margin spreadsheet Canning's 1929 book, economics in accounting, cites the economist's view that asset values are determined by the present value of the future cash flows of assets. Accounting earnings include only realized gains, and exclude unrealized gains and losses, the economic benefits will be enterprise's operating earnings and are favorable to the same treatment, regardless of whether they have been implemented. Thus, in general, accounting gains are less than economic gains, and the difference is mainly in the interest. At present, about the nature of the enterprise. Western economists have different views. There is also some debate. Some western economists analyze the nature of the enterprise mainly from the perspective of transaction costs that coase emphasizes.