how to buy cars and sell at a profit By transferring ownership and control of data, the entire society's passive consumers will be active participants. With the tools to audit the supply chain, labor security, fair trading, and organic production will all be validated. We can replace advertising terms with proof and replace trust with auditability. Last month, the bank said it expects to raise interest rates twice to keep inflation below 3 percentage points by the end of the decade. Palmer said: "I'm worried about the British retailers are now in the midst of a perfect storm, interest rate decisions in November, rising inflation, real wages, falling credit availability and the UK to take off the European uncertainty increased, these during the Christmas season for caused an unprecedented pressure on household budgets, pushed consumer confidence to historic lows. "Historically, the concept of income has first appeared in economics. Adam Smith, in the wealth of nations, defined income as "the amount of consumption that is not eroded by capital", and saw it as an increase in wealth. Later, most economists inherited and developed this view. 1890, ai (Alfred Marshall Maarshell) in its "the principles of economics," the Adam Smith's "wealth increase" enterprise, introduced the concept of earnings, is proposed to distinguish the entity capital and value-added benefits of economic benefits. Originated in ancient human market trading place for a fixed period of time or place, after the urban growth and prosperity, live in the city of adjacent area farmers, craftsmen, artisans, will start to deal with each other and contribute to the economy of the city. Obvious, the best way to trade is in the city there is a centralized, as market, can let the people in the provision of goods and business services, convenient for people to find goods and business contacts. When a city's market becomes large and more open, the city's economic vitality is also relatively growing. From the total formula of capital, G- w-g, the surplus value is created in the process of direct production, which is also realized in the process of circulation. So, it seems to capitalist surplus value is the proliferation of all capital in advance, because (1) as for the cost of capital, in order to produce goods, he not only to advance capital to buy the Labour force, but also bought consumed in the process of production of a variety of means of production, these fees by capital purchase price as a factor of production to join the formation of the cost price; (2) in terms of the capital, capital purchased in advance of production and labor under the direction and supervision of the capitalists, in the process of production, play the function of the production of surplus value, not only the cost of capital is involved in the formation of the surplus value, and all the upfront capital as the material factors of production (including those not yet take fixed capital), in the whole process of production, to participate in the formation process of the surplus value, therefore, all the capital should be paid in advance. The residual value is not only the increase of the capital, but also the total capital increase. These are all distorted surface phenomena. In fact, the value of proliferation is just hired laborers in the process of production created the new value of the cost of living, the balance after deduct the labor price (wages), as the proliferation of alterable capital or hire workers free of charge for the rest of the product of Labour, is surplus value. The surplus value, as a product of the concept of total prepaid capital, is the transformation form of profit. In such a simple deal, the details and considerations of the plan have exceeded what many traders can do in real deals. Therefore, it is not difficult to understand why so many people lose money in the foreign exchange futures market. Then the interest rate theory of the loan is the interest rate theory of neoclassical school, which is proposed to correct Keynes's theory of "liquidity preference". In some ways, the theory of interest rate can be regarded as a synthesis of classical interest rate theory and Keynesian theory.