what is the formula for profit and loss In economic terms, the benefits of holding any two currencies should be equal in the equilibrium of the foreign exchange market, which is: Ri=Rj (interest rate parity). Here, R stands for yield, and I and j represent currencies of different countries. If the benefits of holding two currencies are unequal, you will have A arbitrage: buy A kind of foreign exchange and sell B foreign exchange. Managing a business's operations, marketing and purchases activities and expense management are just some from the decisions that management needs to deal with. After they have designed a assist the company will then must decide what to do with those profits. Among the choices for using income is: operations, returning cash to shareholders, or keeping profit reserve for future use. In this article we discuss how you can calculate expanding the figure that's reported as retained earnings on balance sheets and presenting a review of why a company would want to keep a reserve. Originated in ancient human market trading place for a fixed period of time or place, after the urban growth and prosperity, live in the city of adjacent area farmers, craftsmen, artisans, will start to deal with each other and contribute to the economy of the city. Obvious, the best way to trade is in the city there is a centralized, as market, can let the people in the provision of goods and business services, convenient for people to find goods and business contacts. When a city's market becomes large and more open, the city's economic vitality is also relatively growing. What is Condition Improvement Funding? Condition improvement funding, or CIF, was developed to change the Academy Capital Maintenance Fund (ACMF). It can be used for condition or expansion priorities. Condition priorities refer to matters of protection, dealing with poor construction, improving energy efficiency and the like, whilst expansion priorities may involve expansion of facilities and floor area to manage issues of overcrowding and limited resources. If you wish to submit an application for condition improvement funding, you can submit up to 2 projects per academy or college (just one of the might be for expansion priorities) and it is possible to request between ??8000 and ??4 million per project. Your application might be reviewed and processed in phases in order to ensure that you receive the correct quantity of funding to your project. A historical experiment. In 1934, the Chrysler corporation of the United States first adopted a streamlined body design. In 1937, German design genius fernand porsche began designing cars resembling the beetle. Not only did the beetle crawl on the ground, but it also flew in the air, and its physical resistance was small. Dr Porsche maximized the merits of the beetle's appearance, making "vw" cars the representative work of streamlined cars at the time. The "golden age" of the beatles was the "golden age" of the car from the 1930s to the late 1940s.