profit and loss items in accounting The differences between the two countries are significant because the basic national conditions and economic system of the two countries are fundamentally different. Planned economy and planned economy into market economy, the stage because the traditional pattern of economic and financial structure, imperative the mandatory administrative regulations directly effective, fast, accurate, coupled with the central bank's marketization operation ability is limited, the lack of experience, the benchmark interest rate to today still become society's widespread interest rate decision criteria. The fed is highly marketable, with each "federal funds rate" adjusting to market results after open market operations. Not only can consumers have more choices in the price, variety and service of commodities, but also make it better for enterprises to purchase production factors and sales products. Financial staff are used to dividing the investment payback period into long-term, intermediate and short-term periods. The term usually refers to more than five years, short term generally refers to a period of less than one year, and the middle term is somewhere in between. Managers also use long, medium and short term to describe the plan. Long-term plan describes the organization in a quite long period (usually more than 5 years) and the development direction of policy, regulation on the group's various departments over a longer period of time in some activities should reach the goal and requirements, mapped the organization long-term development blueprint. Short-term plans specifically provides for all departments of an organization in the current stage, to the future the shorter period especially in the recent period of time, which should be engaged in activities, engaged in such activities should meet the requirement, and thus provides a basis for the ACTS of all members of the organization. Most western interest-rate determinism focuses on the analysis of supply and demand comparisons, arguing that interest rates are a price. The difference lies in what supply and demand determines interest rates. For example, Marshall's real interest rate theory emphasizes the real factors of non-monetary factors - productivity and the role of economy in determining interest rate decisions. Productivity is expressed by marginal propensity to invest, and the marginal propensity to save is expressed.