non profit checklist Abn amro believes that after a strong 2017, precious metals will face many headwinds at the start of 2018. The bank said rising dollar and bond yields would put downward pressure on gold and silver prices in 2018. Gold is expected to trade between $1,200 / $1,250 an ounce next year. Dave Rosenberg, chief economist at Gluskin Sheff, said there was no real breakthrough in the bond market, and that current interest rate yields did not significantly break the mean and median levels since 2009. First of all, it costs transaction cost for the manufacturer to purchase intermediate products in the market. It includes the cost of seeking suitable suppliers, signing contracts and supervising contract execution. If the manufacturer can produce some intermediate products within the enterprise itself, it can eliminate or reduce some transaction costs, and can better guarantee the quality of the products. Second, if the manufacturers need is a special type of specialized equipment, the supplier does not generally willing to specialize in only a buyer of the product of the investment and production, because this kind of proprietary investment risk is bigger. Therefore, vendors that need this specialized device need to solve the problem of specialized devices within the enterprise. In the end, the manufacturers hire employees with specialized skills, such as specialized product design, cost management, and quality control, and establish long-term contractual relationships with them. This can be more beneficial than buying the corresponding services from other vendors, thereby eliminating or reducing the corresponding transaction costs. In the American society of automotive engineers standards SAEJ 687 c for automobile is defined as: power driven by itself, with a driving device, can in a fixed orbit outside the road or on regional transport passenger and cargo or vehicle traction vehicles. Cars are divided into bicycles and trains according to the overall structure. Cycling is a basic form. 4 x 2, 6 x 4, 4 x 4 and 6 x 6 are used to represent the driving characteristics. The previous number represents the total number of wheels (double tire and still count a wheel), and the latter number indicates the number of driving wheels. If all wheels are driven wheels are called all-wheel drive vehicles. The train is made up of a tractor or a bicycle trailer or semi-trailer. Car generally can be divided into the following categories, according to the use cars, buses, freight cars (commonly known as the truck), off-road vehicle, traction motor, dump truck, special vehicles, semi-trailer and special semi-trailer. Ms lagarde said she recently to Britain and the European Union in the civil rights, Northern Ireland and financial settlement negotiations welcome breakthrough, but said, the final agreement was established to minimize the trade barriers, and to provide enough time to implement change. The UK glass industry is pursuing an active programme on energy efficiency and decarbonisation. But building the business case to secure funds remains a barrier. Capital costs can be very high and paybacks periods are often in excess of two years; traditional loans are usually unattractive for this work. “We’re very proud of the way that the glass industry has come together to face the challenge of energy efficiency and decarbonisation - which will continue to define all manufacturing and markets for the coming decades. Most western interest-rate determinism focuses on the analysis of supply and demand comparisons, arguing that interest rates are a price. The difference lies in what supply and demand determines interest rates. For example, Marshall's real interest rate theory emphasizes the real factors of non-monetary factors - productivity and the role of economy in determining interest rate decisions. Productivity is expressed by marginal propensity to invest, and the marginal propensity to save is expressed.