profit and loss in excel Keynes argued that savings and investment were two interdependent variables, not two independent variables. As we work hard to earn a fantastic living and pay our charges, additionally, there are crooks who generate a living by robbing from unsuspecting victims. Thus, we should instead always be on guard from such individuals by securing our personal data and making sure that they may not be extracted from us and employed for crooks' advantages Economic profits in perfect competition and monopolistic competition market has a special purpose, a positive profit can attract more enterprises to enter the market, increasing competition and push the market equilibrium price low, exclude some enterprises lack of competitiveness in the market, to achieve long-term equilibrium; On the contrary, negative economic profit can eliminate some of the original enterprises in the market, because the supply is reduced, the market equilibrium price will be pushed up, and the long-term equilibrium will be achieved. The result of the two cases is that economic profits disappear from each manufacturer and the manufacturer's total income is at the lowest point of average cost. Under the theoretical framework of the theory, the theory of commodity market equilibrium and the monetary market equilibrium of Keynesian theory are unified. Marx's theory of interest rate decisions from the perspective of the source and essence of interest, taking into account the institutional factors in the role of interest rate decisions of interest theory, its theoretical core is the interest rate is determined by the average profit margin. Marx believed that under capitalism, interest is a part of profit and a form of conversion of surplus value. As hicks income concept did not specify what is called "equal wealth", and thus the income concept formed the basis of many debates concept, and the theory of accounting earnings, especially the capital preservation theory has a great influence. In accounting, people used to call "maintaining the same level of affluence" as capital preservation.