what does net profit margin show Cylinder work volume refers to the volume of gas swept by the piston from the top to the bottom, also known as single cylinder displacement, depending on the cylinder diameter and the piston stroke. Engine displacement is the total volume of working volume of each cylinder, usually expressed in milliliter (CC). Engine displacement is one of the most important structural parameters. It is more representative of engine size than cylinder diameter and cylinder number, and many indicators of engine are closely related to displacement. From the total formula of capital, G- w-g, the surplus value is created in the process of direct production, which is also realized in the process of circulation. So, it seems to capitalist surplus value is the proliferation of all capital in advance, because (1) as for the cost of capital, in order to produce goods, he not only to advance capital to buy the Labour force, but also bought consumed in the process of production of a variety of means of production, these fees by capital purchase price as a factor of production to join the formation of the cost price; (2) in terms of the capital, capital purchased in advance of production and labor under the direction and supervision of the capitalists, in the process of production, play the function of the production of surplus value, not only the cost of capital is involved in the formation of the surplus value, and all the upfront capital as the material factors of production (including those not yet take fixed capital), in the whole process of production, to participate in the formation process of the surplus value, therefore, all the capital should be paid in advance. The residual value is not only the increase of the capital, but also the total capital increase. These are all distorted surface phenomena. In fact, the value of proliferation is just hired laborers in the process of production created the new value of the cost of living, the balance after deduct the labor price (wages), as the proliferation of alterable capital or hire workers free of charge for the rest of the product of Labour, is surplus value. The surplus value, as a product of the concept of total prepaid capital, is the transformation form of profit. Dave Rosenberg, chief economist at Gluskin Sheff, said there was no real breakthrough in the bond market, and that current interest rate yields did not significantly break the mean and median levels since 2009. Data released by the American petroleum institute (API) showed that U.S. crude oil inventories fell 5.2 million barrels in the week ended Dec. 15, down from an expected 35.18 million barrels. Refinery inventories fell more than expected, while gasoline inventories rose, but were less than expected. The overall API data is good and good for oil prices. Financial staff are used to dividing the investment payback period into long-term, intermediate and short-term periods. The term usually refers to more than five years, short term generally refers to a period of less than one year, and the middle term is somewhere in between. Managers also use long, medium and short term to describe the plan. Long-term plan describes the organization in a quite long period (usually more than 5 years) and the development direction of policy, regulation on the group's various departments over a longer period of time in some activities should reach the goal and requirements, mapped the organization long-term development blueprint. Short-term plans specifically provides for all departments of an organization in the current stage, to the future the shorter period especially in the recent period of time, which should be engaged in activities, engaged in such activities should meet the requirement, and thus provides a basis for the ACTS of all members of the organization.