2011 toyota corolla oil filter If W on behalf of commodity value, k represents the cost, with p represents the profit, so, as the money into profit, the capitalist conditions of commodity value, namely, W = c + v + m = k + m, on further into W = k + p, i.e. goods value + profit into the cost price. It is not obvious in some analyses, but it is important to note that economic profits include opportunity costs. The profit of an entrepreneur (normal profit) is usually positive, but economic profit can be either positive or negative (loss). That's why the opportunity cost is included: in a completely competitive market, when marginal cost equals marginal revenue, profit maximization or loss minimization conditions arise. If the market price is lower than the total average cost, which means that the economic profit is negative, the entrepreneur needs to compare the value of the loss and the average variable cost. If the business continues to operate, the negative economic profit must not be lower than the average variable cost, otherwise the entrepreneur would rather shut down the company than continue to take the loss. Some would say that the central bank's way of ensuring independence is to abandon macroprudential policies and micro-prudential policies and to take unconventional interventions in the securities market. But the crisis is an important lesson, macroeconomic and financial policies are closely connected, when the two tasks in the same institution, management by different commission, their coordination is the most effective. And because interest rates are low and uncertain, a crisis is coming, and unconventional policies will come back. First of all, the earnings of the fund in 2017 are in an uncertain environment. The first half of the market is in a period of "cash shortage". Towards the end of the year, the central bank started to fight for the "money shortage", so monetary policy eased and interbank money market rates fell. As a result, yu 'ebao's yields suddenly fell below the 4 per cent mark. A broad market is a group of vendors and individuals who are associated with other vendors and individuals to buy and sell certain goods. The size of the market, the size of the market, is the number of buyers.