castor oil target After last month's call for management, Multiyork, a furniture chain, is closing, and the folded grocery wholesaler Palmer&Harvey has nearly 3,000 jobs. Insurance companies have withdrawn or reduced the credit insurance of retailers, including Poundland and Maplin, that could affect the delivery of inventory. New participants in the education blockchain ecosystem From the total formula of capital, G- w-g, the surplus value is created in the process of direct production, which is also realized in the process of circulation. So, it seems to capitalist surplus value is the proliferation of all capital in advance, because (1) as for the cost of capital, in order to produce goods, he not only to advance capital to buy the Labour force, but also bought consumed in the process of production of a variety of means of production, these fees by capital purchase price as a factor of production to join the formation of the cost price; (2) in terms of the capital, capital purchased in advance of production and labor under the direction and supervision of the capitalists, in the process of production, play the function of the production of surplus value, not only the cost of capital is involved in the formation of the surplus value, and all the upfront capital as the material factors of production (including those not yet take fixed capital), in the whole process of production, to participate in the formation process of the surplus value, therefore, all the capital should be paid in advance. The residual value is not only the increase of the capital, but also the total capital increase. These are all distorted surface phenomena. In fact, the value of proliferation is just hired laborers in the process of production created the new value of the cost of living, the balance after deduct the labor price (wages), as the proliferation of alterable capital or hire workers free of charge for the rest of the product of Labour, is surplus value. The surplus value, as a product of the concept of total prepaid capital, is the transformation form of profit. Solution: as long as the gasoline in the tank is exhausted, the extra gasoline vapor in the tank can be fired into the cylinder by the negative pressure of the engine, and no gasoline vapor will overflow. Although an enterprise's internal trade fair eliminates or reduces some of the market transaction costs, it also brings with it the specific transaction costs of the enterprise. The main reason for this defect is also the incompleteness of information. Specifically, first, there are various contractual relationships among enterprises, including contractual relationship between enterprises and workers, contractual relationship between enterprises and managers, etc. The enterprise should supervise the work of the workers and products that it employs, as well as the managers and other personnel, and induces them to work hard for the enterprise. So, companies are signing contracts and spending on oversight and incentives. Secondly, on the one hand, corporate decision makers often need to obtain information from subordinates. On the other hand, the decision-making information of the upper level of the enterprise should be realized by passing it to the subordinate. The information transmission of these two different directions will be distorted by the increase of subordination of enterprise scale, resulting in the loss of enterprise efficiency. Once again, the subordinate of the enterprise often conceals or passes the wrong information to the superior for selfish motives, so that the superior can make decisions that benefit the subordinate. Or, the subordinate's decision to the superior only passes or executes the part that is advantageous to oneself. These will result in the loss of enterprise efficiency. Thus, the expansion of enterprises is limited. According to coase's theory, the scale of the enterprise should be expanded to this point, that is at this point to increase the cost of an internal exchange cost equals the cost through the market exchange cost and so on. According to Jerome McCarthy, "basic marketing" : a market is a group of potential customers with the same needs; They are willing to trade the goods or services offered by the seller in exchange for something of value, which is the way to meet the demand.