sae 140 gear oil The response to multilayered values is rational. Rational (including abstract thinking with image thinking) is higher animals, are now known to have intelligent human only) on the basis of intellectual responses, to the further development of it by means of language, text or image will intellectual formed by various basic concept and basic image fixed in the form of the second signal system in the brain, and within the brain to be more complex, the deeper, longer series "sex", "rigid instinct", "elastic instinct" and "intellectual" and other forms of reaction. Among them, the cognition of the relation between the basic concepts forms the abstract thinking, and the person's understanding of the relation between the basic images forms the image thinking. Rationality is human to the second signal system of "reflection" type of reaction activity, it can find out the basic concept and basic image, more general internal relation and essence difference between to discover things between the movement of more general and more abstract and change rule. For example, people form "water" and "to..." through the practice of production and life. To ", "low" and "flow", the concept of nouns, prepositions, adjectives, verbs, between these concepts through a certain form of conditioned reflex established a mutual connection, thus obtained the "water flows downwards" such a logic rules.From the total formula of capital, G- w-g, the surplus value is created in the process of direct production, which is also realized in the process of circulation. So, it seems to capitalist surplus value is the proliferation of all capital in advance, because (1) as for the cost of capital, in order to produce goods, he not only to advance capital to buy the Labour force, but also bought consumed in the process of production of a variety of means of production, these fees by capital purchase price as a factor of production to join the formation of the cost price; (2) in terms of the capital, capital purchased in advance of production and labor under the direction and supervision of the capitalists, in the process of production, play the function of the production of surplus value, not only the cost of capital is involved in the formation of the surplus value, and all the upfront capital as the material factors of production (including those not yet take fixed capital), in the whole process of production, to participate in the formation process of the surplus value, therefore, all the capital should be paid in advance. The residual value is not only the increase of the capital, but also the total capital increase. These are all distorted surface phenomena. In fact, the value of proliferation is just hired laborers in the process of production created the new value of the cost of living, the balance after deduct the labor price (wages), as the proliferation of alterable capital or hire workers free of charge for the rest of the product of Labour, is surplus value. The surplus value, as a product of the concept of total prepaid capital, is the transformation form of profit. In 1946, the famous British economist J.R. hicks, in value and capital, developed the concept of income into a general concept of economic gain. He argues that the real purpose of computing revenues is to make people aware of the amount of money they can spend without making them poorer. Accordingly, he gave a generally accepted definition of "the maximum amount of consumption that a person can spend at the end of the term, at the same level of prosperity". Hicks's definition, though primarily for personal gain, applies to businesses as well. In the case of the enterprise, according to this definition, the enterprise income can be understood as the maximum amount that can be allocated in the enterprise cost accounting period under the same amount of capital at the end of the term and the beginning of the period. It is not obvious in some analyses, but it is important to note that economic profits include opportunity costs. The profit of an entrepreneur (normal profit) is usually positive, but economic profit can be either positive or negative (loss). That's why the opportunity cost is included: in a completely competitive market, when marginal cost equals marginal revenue, profit maximization or loss minimization conditions arise. If the market price is lower than the total average cost, which means that the economic profit is negative, the entrepreneur needs to compare the value of the loss and the average variable cost. If the business continues to operate, the negative economic profit must not be lower than the average variable cost, otherwise the entrepreneur would rather shut down the company than continue to take the loss. Like most of the developed countries, France's car market also belongs to the mature market, tend to be saturated, most new car sales are no longer a first-time buyers of consumer is bought, is more of a used car. Subject to regional economy, the cost of living, and the influence of cultural background, etc, the French are more keen to sta domestic car, in French, so we will find that their vehicle seems to is not match with the national economic development level, and it is precisely the characteristics of these European developed countries have in common, they did not imagine the high to the requirement of cars, more practical. Psa Peugeot Citroen sold 51,188 cars in France in 2014, down 2.2% from a year earlier, according to data from the auto industry. Sales at Renault also fell 0.4 per cent year on year to 37,898 units. In addition, Volkswagen, ford, Toyota and most other car companies suffered declines in France in 2014, and France's current car market is not expected to sell well.