organic palm oil In the early 20th century, famous American economist elvin fisher developed the theory of economic gain. In its book "the nature of capital and yield", first, the concept of yield is analyzed in terms of the performance of earnings, and three different types of benefits are proposed: Ford motor co., in 1915, produced a car that was different from a horse model The accounting income follows the historical cost principle and the matching principle, which is conducive to the objective reflection of the business management responsibility of the enterprise management authorities. But, due to the historical cost principle inherent defects, especially according to the present value of revenue and expenses by historical cost line, makes the calculation of accounting earnings lack of inner logical unity, and the matching principle is difficult to carry out, so that the book value of assets can not reflect its real value, cost cannot be fully compensated. And the economic benefit is measured in the current value, which reflects the actual value of the asset, which is beneficial to the full compensation of the cost. Labour minister John MacDonald (John McDonnell), said the international monetary fund, according to a report of a conservative government "good at cuts in public services, tax breaks for a few rich people, but no hope to invest in our country for the majority of people skills and infrastructure needed for the economic development". People in the choice is to hold their currencies, or hold a certain foreign borrowing money, the first and want to hold what kind of currency brought him great benefits. And the yield of currencies first is measured by its financial market interest rates. E CB staff predicted that the inflation rate would reach 1.4 PC by 2018, rising to 1.7 PC 2020 GDP growth of 2.3 PC next year - 0.5 percentage point upgrade - but will slow to 1.6 PC in 2020, it said. First of all, it costs transaction cost for the manufacturer to purchase intermediate products in the market. It includes the cost of seeking suitable suppliers, signing contracts and supervising contract execution. If the manufacturer can produce some intermediate products within the enterprise itself, it can eliminate or reduce some transaction costs, and can better guarantee the quality of the products. Second, if the manufacturers need is a special type of specialized equipment, the supplier does not generally willing to specialize in only a buyer of the product of the investment and production, because this kind of proprietary investment risk is bigger. Therefore, vendors that need this specialized device need to solve the problem of specialized devices within the enterprise. In the end, the manufacturers hire employees with specialized skills, such as specialized product design, cost management, and quality control, and establish long-term contractual relationships with them. This can be more beneficial than buying the corresponding services from other vendors, thereby eliminating or reducing the corresponding transaction costs.