packard motor car The division of labor is becoming more and more elaborate, the process is more and more complicated, and the coordination is more strict. To put these complex organisms organized scientifically, make each link and department activities can join each other in time, space and Numbers, both around the overall objectives, and acted, coordinate each other, there must be a strict plan. The organization, coordination, control and so on in management, if there is no plan, is as unthinkable as the automobile assembly plant without the design of the process. Some would say that the central bank's way of ensuring independence is to abandon macroprudential policies and micro-prudential policies and to take unconventional interventions in the securities market. But the crisis is an important lesson, macroeconomic and financial policies are closely connected, when the two tasks in the same institution, management by different commission, their coordination is the most effective. And because interest rates are low and uncertain, a crisis is coming, and unconventional policies will come back. First of all, it costs transaction cost for the manufacturer to purchase intermediate products in the market. It includes the cost of seeking suitable suppliers, signing contracts and supervising contract execution. If the manufacturer can produce some intermediate products within the enterprise itself, it can eliminate or reduce some transaction costs, and can better guarantee the quality of the products. Second, if the manufacturers need is a special type of specialized equipment, the supplier does not generally willing to specialize in only a buyer of the product of the investment and production, because this kind of proprietary investment risk is bigger. Therefore, vendors that need this specialized device need to solve the problem of specialized devices within the enterprise. In the end, the manufacturers hire employees with specialized skills, such as specialized product design, cost management, and quality control, and establish long-term contractual relationships with them. This can be more beneficial than buying the corresponding services from other vendors, thereby eliminating or reducing the corresponding transaction costs. The determination of this ratio mainly depends on the supply and demand relationship between the two sides and the competition. In general, the interest rate falls when the supply exceeds demand. Interest rates rise when demand exceeds supply. In addition, law, habit and so on also have a larger role. Marx's theory is of guiding significance to explain the question of interest rate decision under socialized production. 3. The cost of accounting earnings is listed in historical cost. Due to the current accounting practice in the enterprise asset is measured at the historical cost in, with the cost nature is the historical cost has been derived from the law of the transfer, so as to determine the income is an important factor in the cost and the historical cost.