benz patent motor car It said the regulations allow agency staff to forgo their right to equal pay with directly employed staff in return for a contract that offers pay between assignments, known as a “Swedish derogation” contract. It said these were “widely abused, as noted by the government commissioned Taylor Review of Modern Working Practises”. The investment quantity is the decreasing function of interest rate, saving is the increment function of interest rate, and the change of interest rate depends on the equilibrium point of investment quantity and saving amount. Keynes's theory of money supply and demand decided that interest rates were a monetary factor rather than an actual factor. Palmer said: "I'm worried about the British retailers are now in the midst of a perfect storm, interest rate decisions in November, rising inflation, real wages, falling credit availability and the UK to take off the European uncertainty increased, these during the Christmas season for caused an unprecedented pressure on household budgets, pushed consumer confidence to historic lows. "Historically, the concept of income has first appeared in economics. Adam Smith, in the wealth of nations, defined income as "the amount of consumption that is not eroded by capital", and saw it as an increase in wealth. Later, most economists inherited and developed this view. 1890, ai (Alfred Marshall Maarshell) in its "the principles of economics," the Adam Smith's "wealth increase" enterprise, introduced the concept of earnings, is proposed to distinguish the entity capital and value-added benefits of economic benefits. The category of surplus value clearly reflects the antagonism between capital and labor, because it is the multiplication of variable capital and is possessed by the capitalist without compensation; And the category of profit, it seems, means that capital itself can create a new value. This reversal is the inevitable product of capitalist mode of production. First, because the constant capital + variable capital (c+v) consumed by the capitalist production is converted into cost price, thus concealing the essential difference between the invariant capital (c) and the variable capital (v); Second, because Labour costs into wages, show the labor remuneration, so surplus value into profit, has nothing to do with laborer labor, virtually the only product of the total capital; Finally, the surplus value into profit, on the premise of rate of surplus value into profit margins, namely by means of profit margins, only costs more than the forehead has translate into profits, further into the upfront costs in a certain cycle period more than the balance of its own price. In real life, industry companies is usually based on the established level of profitability, and then obtained the expected LiRunLiang on profit margins by prepaid cost, but it is not a subjective illusion, but objectively completely possible. The scientific argument and practice shows that this profit is actually the increment of variable cost. In short, profit is an intrinsic or an entity, while the rest is an external phenomenon or form. Torque is the force that causes the object to rotate. Engine torque refers to the moment when the engine outputs from the crankshaft. It is inversely proportional to the engine speed under the condition of fixed power, and the faster the torque is smaller, the larger it is, which reflects the load capacity of the car in a certain range.